It is common knowledge that John Williams did not publish his interpretation of this piece as he believed that music should be unfettered by rigid adherence to standardised expectations or draconian rules. However, to preserve and to detail his playing would add to our understanding of how brilliant interpretation can make Bach come alive and in a way handhold budding guitarists in the personal journey to discover his musical direction through building on existing techniques. Breaking down the piece to bitesize levels, we can appreciate and pick up carefully skills employed by John Williams as he plays the piece and hopefully enhance our own performance.
It appears to go against the grain to bypass Bach’s conception of the piece based on yesteryears’ cultural and societal settings. One cannot deny though the evolution of music through the passing of time and season. John Williams’ interpretation embodies his person and history. As a legend for classical guitar, unlocking the secrets in a clinical study would be a gainful platform for personal development and future self expression. Take for example, Michaelangelo’s bust of David, his interpretation of David’s beauty has been replicated by many and later improvised. In the same vein, what we are doing here is to learn from the master and develop a personal voice ultimately.
1. Did you key in all the notes in this John Williams version of Prelude in E, BWV 1006a? No. I already have the notes of BWV 1006a in softcopy. I edited and checked the notes from there.
2. How do you determine the position and/or string of the notes used? Based on the video, note by note. When John Williams’ left hand is out of the camera frame, I’ll look at his right hand to determine the string used. If both hands are not visible, I can only make calculated guesses.
3. How are the hammer-on and pull-offs determined? It is really hard to accurately determine the slurs used. I used the following clue during the making. LH: Slightly raised finger before the note played for hammer-on. Finger touching a higher string immediately after the execution for pull-off. RH: No obvious finger movement of playing when the next note sounds.
4. How accurate are the records? I would say about 95% of the left hand. (Not inclusive of those notes played with his hands out of the camera frame.)
5. Why did you use B and N instead of the Barre indicators that are more widely used? I think the Barre brackets/indicator makes the sheet music messy. Barring brackets/indicator is useful if the required Barre is within the same bar or line of staves. There is no way you can indicate the start of barring in situation when the notes continuing onto the next line of staff or are too far apart.
6. Did you do it looking at the video at full speed when you make this thing? No. I slowed it down using video editing software such that each semiquaver is slightly less than half a second apart.
7. How are the dynamic markings determined? I take reference from the audio sound wave of the video to identify the different volume levels. The expression markings are based on the audio levels. Relatively, as are dynamics in musical sense.
This is a scam review of Pi Network (minepi.com), a social cryptocurrency mobile mining App with proof of authenticity and what it really does. Below is how it looks on the official Pi Network website. Is this just another Cryptocurrency Scam that rip your hard earned money out of you? The Chinese characters certainly raise some brows for it’s authenticity as this whole thing claimed to be started by Stanford graduates. A pleasant surprise is on it’s way. Let’s dig further…
Activities pertaining to any transaction of Pi is currently unauthorised. Do not engage in any offer provided by 3rd party or you may suffer financial lost.
me trying to translate the chinese characters displayed on the official website
And so it seems that the chinese characters are present to warn people from getting scammed by third parties. Not much can be concluded yet. We are only at the beginning to uncovering the truth about Pi Network. To help everyone get a full picture, this Pi Network scam review of minepi.com is structured as follow:
What is Pi Network (minepi.com)
What does this Pi Network work
Who are the people behind Pi Network
What does the Pi Network App do
Conclusion of Pi Network Scam Review
Is the Pi Network suitable for me?
What is Pi Network? – Pi Network Scam Review
Pi Network is a network of users mining Pi, a social Cryptocurrency in it’s beta phrase. Pi Network users or members “mine” Pi using a mobile App called the Pi Network App. This Pi Network App is available to download on Apple App and Google Play Store. An APK file for Android devices without Google support is also available for download.
Cryptocurrencies are digital money. One example of cryptocurrencies is Bitcoin. Bitcoins are accepted by Microsoft as payment for software subscriptions. Cryptocurrencies are also tradeable on exchange (like Binance & Coinbase) for other cryptocurrencies. It can also be converted to fiat currencies. SGD, USD, RMB and MYR are some examples of fiat currencies (Government-backed money/ Legal tender).
me trying to explain what cryptocurries are in my own words.
How does this Pi Network works? – Pi Network Scam Review
Pi Network refers to the network in which the value of Pi can and may be determined by the level of activities and engagement. Users who have downloaded the App may also be referred to as a member of the network.
The purpose of this network is to give value to this cryptocurrency by distributing Pi. The network is structured in such a way that users who have more invites gets a higher mining rate. This is to reward users for their contribution and commitment to the network. However, it is not compulsory for users to invite others to mine the cryptocurrency. Casual members who have no intention of inviting others to the network mine at a base rate. There are no other disadvantages or whatsoever besides having a base mining rate for casual users.
Halving is a mathematical concept in cryptocurrency to safeguard its value by means of scarcity. In any currencies be it fiat or digital, the true value is determined by the level of engagement and scarcity. Halving of mining rate occurs whenever the total number of users reaches a certain milestone.
Who are the people behind Pi Network?
We have briefly touched about Pi Network. In this section of this Pi Network Scam Review, I refer the Pi Network as a term to describe Pi. Now, we are talking about the product, which is Pi. The cryptocurrency in question.
Pi was co-developed by Vincent McPhillip, MBA and Ph.D Stanford graduates Dr. Nicolas Kokkalis and Dr. Chengdiao Fan. The pictures below taken from minepi.com
The profiles of members of the core team is verifiable one way or another. Dr. Nicolas’s profile is publicly available at https://hci.stanford.edu/nicolas It’s a match. The developers are who they claim they are. So far so good 🙂
What does the Pi Network App do?
The Pi Network App can be downloaded when you visit the Official Website of Pi Network. Once downloaded and installed, the Pi Network App requires you to fill in some details to create an account. You’ll see a message that says an invitation code is required. Remember we talked about the Pi Network? One will have to join a network to be in a network. Ok, sounds legit… The invitation code is case sensitive. Use mine if you ever need one:
The image with the nice purple background is how it looks like after successful sign-up. The counter at the top displaying 13.1175 π is how much you earned or “mined” based on the level of your commitment. The lightning button on the right with a 0.25 π/h is the rate you are getting.
You will immediately notice that the numbers on the counter increases every second. Yes, you guess it right. The moment you start the mining by activating the lightning button, your Pi starts growing little by little every second.
Throughout the entire process of downloading, installation, account creation and actual usage, you will not be asked to enter any financial information. No credit-card details, no Paypal account, no iBanking username & password. The only thing that you have been asked to enter are details required by any website for account creation. Sounds good so far! 😉
Here comes to the conclusion of this article Pi Network Scam Review. First, i’d like to thank you for your precious time and i really do hope I’ve help clear some of your doubts. In my opinion, Pi Network is not a scam and far from it. The developers are who they claim they are, the App does what it says it does, the idea of how it might work coincides with mathematical and currency concepts. On top of that, Pi Network App seems harmless to me. 😄
Is the Pi Network suitable for me? – Pi Network Scam Review
Is Pi for You? Now is the distribution phrase of the Pi Network and any interested parties are free to join. Pi Network is free and in a sense it’s as good as free money. There is no free lunch of-course. Pi Network App requires users to “re-activate” mining after every mining session. Each mining session is 24 hrs. This system ensure a certain level of commitment to the network (just a few seconds to open the app and tap the button to be exact). If you are a believer of block-chain technology or simply just interested in the potential value of Pi, earning some Pi just seems like a logical step to take.
This Pi Network Scam Review is dedicated to individuals like you and I. We should always be vigilant and do our due diligence before engaging into what seems like too good to be true offers.
Click on the download button to get started. The button is encoded with my invitation code. The invitation code you use also affect the rate of your mining. I will not delved into it as it’s beyond the scope of this article. At least you can be very sure I’m committed enough to put off this article for you.
Vibrato is the periodic variation in the pitch (frequency) of a musical note.
Fiddle family and wind players are very particular about Vibrato and can derive intensity and frequency.
Intensity is the variations in pitch. For example, vibrato oscillating between around 80 cents may be classified as a high intensity vibrato and 10 cents as low intensity vibrato. (Note: 1 Octave are 1200 cents apart. Each 100 cents is a semitone. So 1 Octave 12 notes each 100 cents apart).
Frequency refers to the rate of oscalation (how many times) of a particular note is being altered in pitch while sustaining it. Skilled players are able to perform vibrato controlling the intensity dynamically at accelerating and decelerating rate.
Limitations on The Classical Guitar
Guitar players on the other hand are not so particular about Vibrato. Quick decay and inability to accentuate notes naturally becomes a deterance in development of vibrato for any Classical Guitarist. Nevertheless, we can still find pleasure in performing the technique for a variety of reasons dispite unable to fully exploit vibrato. Here are some suggestions why Guitarist employ vibrato in our performances.
Add musical interest to your pieces.
Gives the impression that you are a good player to some of your audiences.
Relaxes your muscles and can help reflex.
Activates overtones from other strings for sonal effects.
Add sightly more sustain in some situations.
Also act as a timer for the rate of rubato. Help some players to “feel” the sustain by holding on to an already fully decayed note for phrasing purposes.
How to perform Vibrato on the Classical Guitar
We will be discussing 2 ways to perform Vibrato on the Classical Guitar. Mainly the Vertical and Horizontal Vibrato. (We will leave methods like pushing and pulling of the guitar head, cover/open soundhole out of this discussion as these are more widely used on acoustic than on the Classical Guitars.)
Vertical Vibrato is executed by moving the distal and proximal interphalangeal joint of the finger while having the string pressed against the fret. The motion of the fingertips dragging the string parallel to the fret altering the pitch higher and back to the pitch. The thumb is usually attached to the neck of the guitar acting as counter force.
Rest the weight of the arm on the fingertips depressed on the string maintaining the shape of your hands. The motion for Horizontal Vibrato is powered from the forearm fixing the elbow like a pivot. The motion is similar to glissandos but at a miniature scale. This vibrato varies the high and low of a pitch.
Classical Guitar Left Hand Technique to reduce bass string squeaks
Cause of the Left Hand squeaks or string noise.
LH string noise refers to the squeaky sound produced by the left hand as it leaves the bass strings. The squeak string noise is caused by friction. It happens mostly when shifting positions across the fingerboard. To effectively reduce or eliminate the bass string squeaks, we have to find ways to reduce that friction. There are 2 approach to this issue and both to be used concurrently to obtain the best results.
The Maintenance Approach
Regularity file the calluses of left hand finger tips.
Wash your hands before playing the guitar.
Moisturise your hands occasionally if you are always in cold and/or dry area.
Use of recording strings like Polished basses can help to reduce the squeak but can also affect the overall brilliance of your guitar. The bass strings are the acoustic enhancer for the high frequencies produced by the treble strings. To simply put, the performance (in terms of sustain, brilliance, sonority and etc.) of the treble strings are influenced by the bass strings.
The Technique Approach
Helicopter Fingering is one common way to effectively reducing left hand squeaks. Move your fingers across the fingerboard when changing positions like how helicopter take off and land. Lift up the finger in a manner perpendicular to the string like a helicopter take off. Most bass string squeaks are caused by a motion similar to that of an aeroplane take off (diagonal motion).
Fingertips Rotation is another effective technique to reduce the noise. The helicopter finger is useful when you are changing basses. Imagine you need to do a glissando with the bass string, you will not be able to apply the helicopter fingering in this case as you need to “hold” and slide/glide to another note. Fortunately the spot that creates the squeak is often a small area of your fingertips. To perform a Fingertips Rotation, simply rotate your fingertips ( still depressing the string against the fret) slightly to move the contact point to a softer part of your finger before you do a glissando/slide/glide. Rotate fingertips towards the sound hole for sliding to a higher note and rotate towards the nut for sliding to a lower note. Less friction means less bass string squeak or noise.
Hope you find this article helpful. Feel free to leave a comment. Your donation is much appreciated.
ABRSM Guitar Grade 8 List B:6
Preludio ‘Saudade’ from La Catedral
Latest 2019 Syllabus Exam Pieces for the Classical Guitar (ABRSM)
Composer: Barrios Mangoré
Preludio ‘Saudade’ is the 1st movement of La Catedral by Barrios Mangoré.
Saudade is a deep emotional state of nostalgic or profound melancholic longing for an absent something or someone that one loves. Moreover, it often carries a repressed knowledge that the object of longing might never return.
Saudade was once described as “the love that remains” after someone is gone. Saudade is the recollection of feelings, experiences, places, or events that once brought excitement, pleasure, well-being, which now triggers the senses and makes one live again. It can be described as an emptiness, like someone (e.g., one’s children, parents, sibling, grandparents, friends, pets) or something (e.g., places, things one used to do in childhood, or other activities performed in the past) that should be there in a particular moment is missing, and the individual feels this absence. It brings sad and happy feelings together: sadness for missing and happiness for experiencing the past.
Nascimento and Meandro cite Duarte Nunes Leão’s definition of saudade: “Memory of something with a desire for it.”
In Brazil, the day of Saudade is officially celebrated on 30 January.